These days students go through a lot of anxiety regarding their studies. This article presents some research-based psychological strategies to help learn effectively and efficaciously. Learning strategies are techniques which students use for better grasp and understanding of academic knowledge. These strategies are beneficial for solving problems that students encounter in academics.
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Cognitive Learning Strategies
Cognitive strategies are mental procedures which involve mentally strategizing the blueprint of the task at hand. These strategies emphasize the development and elaboration of thinking ability in order to enhance learning. Some of the cognitive strategies are:
These strategies emphasize on aiding students grasp and retain information taught in class or read in text-books. These strategies focus on the understanding of concepts obtained from texts. There are five specific comprehension strategies that can be used to improve comprehension. These strategies include monitoring, using text structure, summarizing, elaborating, and explaining.
These strategies help in solving problems that arise when a person has a target to accomplish but does not know the way to do it. These strategies include four steps that is comprehending the problem, planning a solution, executing the plan, and reflecting on whether the solution is rational.
These strategies include three processes that is planning, sentence generation, and revising. Planning involves generation and organization of ideas. Effective strategies suggest more ideas should be generated thus providing more options to choose from. Organization refers to classification of various ideas in order. Then these ideas are included or excluded depending upon their appropriateness in the writing task.
These strategies focus on helping students to analyze why something is correct or incorrect rationally. These strategies aim to teach students how to discriminate right from wrong on the basis of reasoning. There are five fundamental reasoning strategies. First reasoning strategy is generating arguments and counter-arguments. Generating arguments refers to development of logical explanations and generation of counter arguments means proposing arguments that defy one’s own explanation. This helps to view a matter from different perspectives. Another effective reasoning strategy is being fair while evaluating evidence. If an evidence does not support your ideas, ignore it.
General self-regulating strategies
These strategies are applicable to various situations such as problem-solving, reasoning, or learning. One of the remarkable strategies of these is Goal Setting. Setting goals makes a student clear about what s/he wants. Students can determine their immediate, short-term, and long-term goals.